Publication Record: Spring 2017

UMN-COP Faculty continue to innovate in the new curriculum and to share their insights with pharmacy educators. Below is a roundup of our recent publications.

Educational Leadership & Administration

Expanding Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Residency Education Through a Multisite University-Affiliated Model

Drs. Sarah Schweiss, Sarah Westberg, Jean Moon, and Todd Sorensen describe and advocate for the use of a multisite residency program that utilizes a centralized administration design in the Journal of Pharmacy Practice. The article outlines the current structure utilized by the University of Minnesota Postgraduate Year 1 Pharmacy Residency Program. The authors describe that utilizing this model can reduce workload of starting new programs and sites, while allowing preceptors to devote more attention to the day-to-day learning needs of the resident.  As the pharmacist’s role on the health care team continues to expand, the demand for residency trained ambulatory care pharmacists will increase. Utilizing a multisite model may be beneficial in increasing the number of residents trained while still maintaining high quality learning and decreasing administrative burden.

A Modified Delphi Process to Define Competencies for Assessment Leads Supporting a Doctor of Pharmacy Program

There is a growing need for assessment in pharmacy education, as well as a need to better understand what makes assessment successful. Dr. Kristin Janke along with colleagues from the University of Michigan, the University of Wisconsin and The Ohio State utilized a two-round modified Delphi process to obtain expert opinion on the the necessary competencies for an assessment lead in a college or school of pharmacy. Through this process, twelve competencies were identified, defined, and grouped into three areas: Context for Assessment, Managing the Process of Assessment, and Leadership of Assessment Activities. These competencies can be used as guidance for professional development for individuals currently working in assessment and as guidance for identifying future assessment leads.  Read more about the competencies here in the American Journal of Pharmacy Education.

Letters, Commentaries, and Reports — Oh My!

We’ve previously profiled work by Drs. Pittenger, Chapman, Frail, Moon, Undeberg and Orzoff related to Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs). Since then, there’s been a flurry of activity related to EPAs at the UMN-COP and at the national level. This spring Dr. Pittenger along with colleagues from other schools published the commentary Describing Entrustable Professional Activities is Merely the First Step. This commentary advocates for future work on refining, implementing, and advancing the use of EPAs. In this same AJPE issue, an AACP special report was published identifying the Core Entrustable Professional Activities for New Pharmacy Graduates supported by AACP. Lastly, the UMN-COP EPA team also wrote a letter to the editor in response to a previous letter calling for EPAs to be personalized and expanded on.

Assessment and Evaluation

Assessing Emotionally Intelligent Leadership in Pharmacy Students

Drs. Claire Kolar, Kerry Fierke, and Kristin Janke along with three colleagues from Regis University collaborated to assess pharmacy student emotional intelligence and the potential relationships between an emotional intelligence instrument and the 2013 CAPE outcomes. Emotional intelligence has been linked to empathy, professionalism, and communication skills. These are important skills and characteristics of pharmacists, and also key components of CAPE 2013 outcomes and ACPE Standards 2016. The team identified at least one connection between the Emotionally Intelligent Leadership for Students Inventory (EILI) and all of the CAPE 2013 outcomes in Domains 3 and 4. Incorporating emotional intelligence assessment and education into the pharmacy curriculum can help build students EI, identify areas of strength and areas of development in the curriculum, and act as a guide for addressing CAPE 2013 outcomes. Read more about the pharmacy student responses and see the full crosswalk here in AJPE.

Course and Curriculum Design

The impact of proctored online exams on the educational experience

Online courses provide many benefits to students and instructors, however maintaining academic integrity during online exams remains a challenge. Drs. Anna Milone, Angela Cortese, and Amy Pittenger along with Rebecca Balestrieri, MEd explored students’ perceptions of an online virtual exam proctor, ProctorU, as a way to maintain academic integrity in online exams. The two courses studied are undergraduate level courses targeted towards students interested in pharmacy or other health professions. After taking virtually proctored exams, students had mixed opinions on this novel method. Students reported that it helped them learn the material better because they could not rely on notes and the proctoring helped prevent cheating.  However,  students also felt that the proctoring was not necessary for 1000 level courses. The authors also identified several logistical challenges to be addressed. Read more about their findings here in Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning.

Calling all UMN-COP Faculty — We try and catch all of the education related work being published — but if you’ve published some work recently and it hasn’t been featured in our publication record, let us know! Please email Bethany at